Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 1 Scene 1

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 1 Scene 1

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 1 Scene 1 Questions and Answers, Passage Based Questions.

Merchant of Venice Act 1 Scene 1 Workbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
In which mood do Antonio’s friends find him in ? What does Antonio say about it ?
Antonio’s friends find him in a sad mood. Antonio admits of his sadness but he says he does not know why he is sad. His ‘ sadness is a source of trouble to him. His sadness tires him out and depresses him, and he finds himself a dull person.

Question 2.
What do we learn about Bassanio’s standard of living ?
Bassanio, being fashionable, is quite extravagant. He maintains a high standard of living which does not match his modest income. He wastes his money in a careless manner. He is under heavy debts but he is not willing to give up his lordly style of living, though he is anxious to get rid of all debts.

Question 3.
What does Bassanio say about Portia ? Why does he want to go to Belmont ?
Bassanio holds a very good opinion of Portia. He says that she is a beautiful and virtuous young lady living in Belmont. She has inherited much riches. Bassanio wants to go to Belmont to win her hand in marriage.

Question 4.
What does Salarino say about the cause of Antonio’s melancholy ?
Salarino tells Antonio that he is sad because his mind is filled with anxiety. He (Antonio) is worried about the high seas where his merchant ships are sailing. In a mood to flatter his rich friend he praises his majestic ships.

Question 5.
“I am Sir Oracle
And when I ope my lips, let no dog bark”. (Lines 97-98)
When does Gratiano utter these words, and in which context ? What does he mean to say ?
Gratiano, one of Antonio’s friends, utters these words when Antonio remarks that he feels he is destined to play a sad role on the stage of life. He says that some persons pretend to look wise by keeping quiet. They consider themselves to be oracles, too sure of their wisdom, who prove to be foolish when they open their mouth.

Question 6.
‘His reasons are as two
grains of wheat hid in two bushels of chaff’ (Lines 118-119)
Who speaks these lines and, about whom ?
Bassanio speaks these lines about his friend Gratiano in his absence. He feels that he speaks too much. Rational words in his speech, according to him, are like two food grains in a lot of (two bushels) chaff.

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 1 Scene 1 Passage Based Questions

Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Antonio :
In sooth, I know not why I am so sad :
It wearies me; you say it wearies you;
But how I caught it, found it, or come by it,
What stuff ’tis made of, whereof it is born,
I am to learn;
And such a want-wit sadness makes of me,
That I have much ado to know myself.
Salarino :
Your mind is tossing on the ocean;
There, where your argosies with portly sail,
Like signiors and rich burghers on the flood,
Or, as it were, the pageants of the sea,
Do overpeer the petty traffickers,
That curt’sy to them, do them reverence,
As they fly by them with their woven wings.

(i) Who is Antonio ? Where is he ? What is his state of mind ?
Answer: Antonio is a rich businessman. Along with his friends he is in a street of Venice. He is sad.

(ii) What is it that makes him sad, according to him ?
Answer: According to Antonio, the feeling of sadness is really depressing. He does not know from where he got it and what is made of and how it began. He admits that sadness has turned him into a dull man.

(iii) Who is Salarino ? What has he to say about Antonio’s melancholy ?
Answer: Salarino is one of Antonio’s friends. According to him, Antonio is sad because he is worried about his ships sailing on the sea.

(iv) What does Antonio say about his ships ? What contradiction do his words convey later ?
Answer: Antonio is not worried about his ships. It is so because his ventures are not limited to one ship or to one place. Moreover, his financial status does not depend on the business transaction of only this year. Strangely, later when his ships are reported to have perished, he goes totally bankrupt and has nothing left to pay back his loan.

(v) What is the dramatic significance of Antonio’s melancholy ?
Answer: Antonio’s melancholy is dramatically significant. At the very outset, it creates the mood of the play. We are prepared for the tragic events that are to- plunge Antonio and all his associates into a deep crisis.

Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Bassanio :
In my school-days, when I had lost one shaft,
I shot his fellow of the self-same flight
The self-same way with more advised watch,
To find the other forth, and by adventuring both
I oft found both : I urge this childhood proof,
Because what follows is pure innocence.
I owe you much, and, like a wilful youth,
That which I owe is lost; but if you please
To shoot another arrow that self way
Which you did shoot the first, I do not doubt,
As I will watch the aim, or to find both
Or bring your latter hazard back again
And thankfully rest debtor for the first.

(i) What has Antonio learnt about Bassanio ? What does Bassanio say ?
Answer: Antonio has learnt that Bassanio is going on a journey for the sake of a lady. He wants to know who the lady is. Bassanio, instead of responding to the question, refers to his squandering of a lot of money to maintain a lordly style of living. He says that he owes Antonio a lot of money which he took as loans in the past, and he declares that he hopes to pay all his debts soon.

(ii) What tells you that Antonio is a selfless friend of Bassanio ?
Answer: Despite the fact that Bassanio has not paid ‘ back what he owes him, he is ready to help and support any of his plans with his money, his body and all that he has. It shows that he is a selfless friend and a generous person.

(iii) Why does Bassanio refer to his childhood sport of arrows ?
Answer: Bassanio refers to his childhood sport in which he would get his lost arrow by shooting another in the direction of the lost one. His purpose is to tell Antonio that if he gets another loan from Antonio he shall be able to get so much money by his new plan that he will repay his old as well as new loan.

(iv) What is Bassanio’s plan ?
Answer: Bassanio wants to take a loan from Antonio in order to present himself as a suitable suitor to Portia, a beautiful rich lady of Belmont. He adds that various suitors from different lands are coming to win her hand.

(v) What impression do you form of Bassanio ?
Answer: We feel that Bassanio is a careless, extravagant man. He seems to be selfish in his plan to marry a rich lady so that he may also become rich. This negative impression about him is, however, removed from our minds slowly as the play advances. His sterling qualities as a sincere friend and a devoted husband come to the fore.

Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Antonio :
Believe me, no: I thank my fortune for it,
My ventures are not in one bottom trusted,
Nor to one place; nor is my whole estate Upon the fortune of this present year :
Therefore my merchandise makes me not sad.
Why, then you are in love.
Antonio :
Fie, fie!
Not in love neither? Then let us say you are sad,
Because you are not merry: and ’twere as easy
For you to laugh and leap and say you are merry,
Because you are not sad. Now, by two-headed Janus,
Nature hath framed strange fellows in her time :
Some that will evermore peep through their eyes
And laugh like parrots at a bag-piper,

(i) Who are Salanio and Salarino ? What are they worried about ?
Answer: Salanio and Salarino are Antonio’s friends. They find Antonio inexplicably sad. They are worried about his sadness because he looks almost always sad. They try to guess the reason of his sadness. Salanio feels that he is sad because he is worried about his ships while Salarino thinks he is sad because he is in love.

(ii) What is it that is denied by Antonio ? What claims does he make ? In what sense do his claims prove to be wrong later ?
Answer: Antonio denies that he is worried about his ships. He claims that he has more than one ship and that they are sent to different parts of the world. His claims seem to be wrong or absurd when it is reported later that he has lost all his ships and has gone bankrupt.

(iii) What do the words “Fie, fie !” reveal about Antonio ?
Answer: Salarino, in trying to arrive at some conclusion about Antonio’s melancholy, says that he is sad because he is in love. Antonio denies it vehemently and wonders how he has arrived at such an absurd suggestion. His words show that he is a practical, unromantic sort of person.

(iv) What makes Salarino refer to two-headed Janus ? What suggestion does he want to make ?
Answer: Salarino refers to the two-headed Roman god, Janus, only to say that there are two kinds of persons in this world — the non- serious and the serious. He wants to suggest that Antonio belongs to the category of serious persons.

(v) What is the dramatic significance of Antonio’s melancholy ?
Answer: Antonio’s melancholy which remains baffling seems to be innate in his character. It strikes the keynote of the play. His melancholy is ominous, and prepares us for the oncoming trouble.

Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

There are a sort of men whose visages
Do cream and mantle like a standing pond,
And do a wilful stillness entertain,
With purpose to be dress’d in a opinion
Of wisdom, gravity, profound conceit,
As who should say, ‘I am Sir Oracle,
And when I ope my lips let no dog bark!’

(i) In whose company is Gratiano ? What has provoked him to give a long lecture ?
Answer: Gratiano is in the company of his friends : Antonio, Bassanio, Lorenzo, Salanio and Salarino. Antonio has remarked that he is destined to play a sad role in life. This comment of Antonio provokes Gratiano to give a long lecture.

(ii) Why do some people, according to Gratiano, try to look serious ?
Answer: According to Gratiano, some people try to look serious so that the world should regard them as wise persons. They want to be passed for oracles. They want no one should interrupt them when they speak.

(iii) Whom is Gratiano criticising indirectly ?
Answer: Gratiano’s target of criticism is Antonio who, he feels, remains serious and quiet, perhaps to get a reputation for wisdom, which is not desirable. He believes one should enjoy life as it is.

(iv) Later in the scene Gratiano says he will continue his speech. When are the friends meeting again ? How does the meeting become important ?
Answer: Gratiano says he will continue his speech, which shows that he is talkative. He thinks he will complete his speech at the meeting of friends at dinner time. The meeting at dinner becomes important because Bassanio has invited their arch-rival and enemy Shylock to it for dinner.

(v) What impression does Gratiano leave on Antonio and his friends ? Why does he leave abruptly ? ‘
Answer: Gratiano does not leave a good impression on Antonio or Bassanio. Bassanio clearly tells Antonio that rational words in his talk are like two grains in two bushels of chaff. Gratiano leaves abruptly as he feels he should leave Antonio and Bassanio alone.

Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Bassanio :
In Belmont is a lady richly left;
And she is fair, and, fairer than that word,
Of wondrous virtues: sometimes from her eyes
I did receive fair speechless messages:
Her name is Portia, nothing undervalued
To Cato’s daughter, Brutus’ Portia:
Nor is the wide world ignorant of her worth,
For the four winds blow in from every coast
Renowned suitors, and her sunny locks
Hang on her temples like a golden fleece;
Which makes her seat of Belmont
Colchos’ strand, And many
Jasons come in quest of her.
0 my Antonio, had I but the means
To hold a rival place with one of them,
I have a mind presages me such thrift,
That I should questionless be fortunate!

(i) Who lives in Belmont ? How has Bassanio got interested in her ?
Answer: A very beautiful and rich lady, Portia, lives in Belmont. Bassanio has got interested in her as he has received many ‘silent’ messages of love from her. He feels that she is in love with him.

(ii) What tells you that Portia is a centre of attraction for many young people ?
Answer: According to Bassanio, Portia’s reputation as a rich, beautiful lady has spread far and wide. A number of eligible bachelors are reaching Belmont to try their luck in quest of her.

(iii) How does Bassanio describe Portia ?
Answer: Bassanio says that Portia is beautiful and rich. She also possesses all qualities of head and heart. In no way is she inferior to the well-known Portia, the daughter of the Roman senator, Cato and wife of the still more famous Brutus.

(iv) What is the significance of the allusion to Jason and the golden fleece ?
Answer: Jason was one of the Greek heroes in search of the golden fleece. Jason put his life into danger to get the golden fleece. According to Bassanio, many brave persons, like Jason, are risking everything of theirs to get Portia who is as rare and valuable as the golden fleece.

(v) What is the purpose of Bassanio in telling about Portia to Antonio ? How does he succeed in getting Portia as his wife ?
Answer: Bassanio wants to go to Belmont in style to woo Portia. He wants Antonio to lend him three thousand ducats for the purpose. Later, he succeeds in his mission by choosing the right casket at the lottery of caskets designed by Portia’s late father.

Merchant of Venice Act 5 Scene 1 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 5 Scene 1 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 5 Scene 1 Summary, Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers

Merchant of Venice Act 5 Scene 1 Summary

Setting : Belmont
Characters : Lorenzo, Jessica, Portia, Nerissa, Bassanio, Antonio, Gratiano

Lorenzo and Jessica are seen sitting in Portia’s garden in Belmont. It is a moonlit night, and the lovers indulge in a sort of game by narrating the stories of lovers. Lorenzo refers to Troilus who came out on such a night to meet his beloved Cressida. Jessica refers to Thisbe who, on such a night, ran away in terror at the sight of a lion. Lorenzo talks of another lover, Dido, while Jessica talks of Medea and her lover and narrates how she restored to youth her old father-in-law Aeson. Lorenzo tells how on such a night Jessica eloped with her lover. Jessica, in jest, remarks that he took many false pledges of love for her. Lorenzo says that she has falsely accused him but he forgives her.

At that time Stephano comes to inform them that his mistress, Portia, will arrive here before day break. She is at present visiting holy places where she prays for happiness in her married life. When Stephano wants to know if Bassanio has arrived, Launcelot informs him that he has not arrived yet, but is likely to arrive soon.

Lorenzo asks Stephano to instruct the musicians to play music in order to accord a warm welcome to Portia. Lorenzo points out to Jessica the quietness of night. He admires the millions of beautiful stars that are revolving in their own orbits and producing wonderful music. Jessica says that she also feels enchanted by music. Lorenzo further remarks that one who does not love music is a dangerous person. He is capable of committing serious crimes.

Portia and Nerissa enter the house. Portia appreciates the candle light that is coming out of the hall. She remarks that just as a good deed spreads its fragrance all around, similarly, the candle spreads its light far into the darkness of the night. As the moon becomes visible in the absence of the sun, similarly, the king’s deputy becomes prominent in the absence of the king. Then Portia talks of the sweetness of music.

Portia learns from Lorenzo that Bassanio has not arrived yet. She asks Nerissa to tell the servants not to tell Bassanio that they have been absent from the home. Then Bassanio, Antonio and Gratiano arrive. Bassanio admires the beauty of Portia and says that he is feeling as if it were morning because of the presence of shining Portia. Bassanio introduces Antonio to Portia. Portia tells Bassanio that he should be grateful to his friend Antonio who helped him at the risk of his life.

Nerissa starts quarrelling with Gratiano for she does not find her ring on his finger. She alleges that he must have given it to some young woman. Gratiano tells her that he had to give it to the lawyer’s clerk. Portia tells Gratiano that he should not have parted with the ring. She remarks that Bassanio would never have done it. When Portia asks Bassanio about her ring, Bassanio replies that he, too, had to present it to the lawyer who had argued brilliantly to save the life of Antonio. He had initially refused to part with his ring, but, then on the advice of Antonio he had given it to the lawyer. But Portia refuses to believe the words of Bassanio. Like Nerissa, she, too, says that he must have given it to some other young woman.

When Portia and Bassanio, Nerissa and Gratiano begin to quarrel, Antonio intervenes and says that he is the cause of these quarrels. But Portia tells him that he should not feel upset about all this and he is welcome to her house. Bassanio asks for forgiveness from Portia and assures her that he will never commit such a mistake again. When Antonio stands surety for Bassanio, Portia at once gives a ring to Antonio and asks him to advise Bassanio not to part with this ring. Bassanio is pleasantly surprised to find that it is the same ring that he had given to the lawyer. Portia says that she had got this ring from the same lawyer. Nerissa, too, produces another ring and tells Gratiano that she had got it from the lawyer’s clerk.

Portia, then, explains everything to them. She says that she appeared as a lawyer and Nerissa appeared as a clerk. She tells them that she and Nerissa have just arrived from Venice. Portia, then, gives a letter to Antonio which carries good news. It says that all his missing ships have reached the harbour and there has been no loss. Nerissa at the same time gives the deed of gift of Shylock’s property to Jessica and Lorenzo. Gratiano says that he will always try to guard his ring all his life.

Merchant of Venice Act 5 Scene 1 Critical Commentary

In this scene, the first twenty lines are full of images of romantic beauty. In Shakespeare’s time, there was scarcity of movable scenery, so he made use of his poetry in order to create a beautiful scene of moonlit night. The beautiful passage on the power of music is lyrical in nature. This scene is known for its poetic beauty.

This scene presents an atmosphere of lightness and joy. The play ends on a happy note. We find the happy union of the lovers and there is no shadow of Shylock.

Significance of the Scene

  1. It is a romantic scene. It also provides comic relief.
  2. The ring story provides some laughter.
  3. With the news of Antonio’s ships, the play ends on a happy note.
  4. Some critics regard the scene as superfluous, but they forget that the play has four sub-stories. This scene is essential to unite all threads satisfactorily.

Merchant of Venice Act 5 Scene 1 Glossary

Lines 1-30
mounted : climbed
soul : signs of love
Cressid : Cressida
o’ertrip the dew : across the dewy grass
waft her love : sighed to her lover
renew : made young
un thrift : thriftless
swear : declare
shrew : scolding woman
out-night : tire (you) out in this competition
hark : listen
footing : footsteps

Lines 31-60
wedlock hours : married life
hermit : priest
caremoniously : formally
Sola : Hello
post : messenger
signify : declare

Lines 61-100
creep in : fall upon
patines : plates
orb : star
quiring : singing as in a choir
cherubins : angels
muddy vesture of decay : body of perishable flesh
wanton herd : mischievous group
feign : imagine
stratagems and spoils : plots and thefts
naughty : wicked

Lines 101-150
goose : common bird
season : right time
season’d : improved
speed : prosper
tucket : trumpet
tell-tales : informers
Antipodes : people living in the other part of the globe
heavy : sad
bound : obliged

Lines 151-200
scant : cease to express
courtesy : polite words
cutler’s poetry : poems engraved on cutlery
vehement : strong
riveted : fastened

Lines 201-260
void : empty
conceive : think
contain : preserve
civil doctor : doctor of law
besmear : disgrace
well advised : think properly
double self : duality
of credit : believable
Lines 261-310 :
lend : pledge
wealth : welfare
mending : repairing
unseal : open
come to road : reached the harbour safely
comforts : news

Lines 311-326
deed : document
manna : divine drink
starved : hungry
intergatories : questions
sore : acutely

Merchant of Venice Act 4 Scene 2 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 4 Scene 2 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 4 Scene 2 Summary, Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers

Merchant of Venice Act 4 Scene 2 Summary

Setting : Venice
Characters : Portia, Nerissa, Gratiano

Portia asks Nerissa to go and get the signature of Shylock on the deed of gift. She also tells her that they should reach Belmont earlier than their husbands. In the meantime, Gratiano overtakes Portia and hands over Bassanio’s ring to her.

Portia accepts the ring from Gratiano and asks him to show Shylock’s house to Nerissa. Nerissa tells Portia that she will also try to persuade her husband to give her his ring which she has given him. This will provide them an opportunity to quarrel with their husbands on the ground that they have given their rings to two young women. They will/of course, deny the charge. But they will assert that they are concealing the truth.

Merchant of Venice Act 4 Scene 2 Critical Commentary

This scene informs us that Nerissa, too, will try to get the ring from Gratiano. We also come to know that Portia and Nerissa are in a hurry to reach Belmont before their husbands. They anticipate a humorous situation when they confront their husbands.

Significance of the Scene

  1. This small scene is a continuation of the Trial Scene itself.
  2. We are being prepared for the comic interlude (the ring episode) in the last Act.

Merchant of Venice Act 4 Scene 2 Glossary

Lines 1-23 deed : document
more advice : second thought
swear : promise
warrant : assure
old : hard
outface : face
outswear : swear loudly
tarry : wait

Merchant of Venice Act 4 Scene 1 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 4 Scene 1 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 4 Scene 1 Summary, Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers

Merchant of Venice Act 4 Scene 1 Summary
Merchant of Venice Act 4 Scene 1 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 4 Scene 1 Summary

Setting : Venice
Character : The Duke, Shylock, Antonio, Bassanio, Portia, Nerissa, Gratiano

The Duke extends his sympathy to Antonio who is exposed to great danger. The man who he has to answer in court, says he, has no pity in him. Antonio expresses his gratitude to the Duke for the trouble he has taken to persuade Shylock to give up his demand. But since Shylock is not ready to relent, he is prepared to meet his fate.

The Duke summons Shylock to the court. When Shylock appears, the Duke makes another appeal to him. He says that he and many other believe that Shylock is persisting in his plea only to withdraw it in the end. He hopes that Shylock will not only let off the penalty but also reduce the amount of the original loan in view of Antonio’s numerous losses. Shylock tells the Duke in reply that he is under oath to have only the penalty specified in the bond. The Duke, he says, can reject his claim but it will put a question mark on the justice of the state. “If you ask me why I insist on having a pound of Antonio’s flesh, my reply is that it is my pleasure”, he adds. He cannot give any other reason.

Bassanio tells Shylock that this is the most inhuman way to deal with his opponent. A man cannot destroy the thing that he does not like. At this Shylock asks if a man hates those things which he cannot destroy or if a man would allow himself to be bitten twice by the same serpent. After hearing all this Antonio tells Bassanio not to argue with this man because he cannot change him. He adds that as it is useless to ask the tide not to rise so high, similarly it is useless to ask Shylock to soften his stand. So Antonio requests the court to give its verdict as early as possible.

At this moment Bassanio offers Shylock six thousand ducats instead of three thousand ducats. But Shylock refuses the offer and says that even if he is offered thirty six thousand ducats, he will refuse it and demand a pound of flesh from Antonio’s breast as mentioned in the bond. The Duke intervenes and says that if Shylock does not show any mercy to Antonio, he, too, cannot expect any mercy from anybody. Shylock remarks that he does not need anyone’s mercy because he has committed no crime. He declares that if the Christians can regard the slaves as their property because they have purchased them, he, too, can regard the body of Antonio as his own because he has paid three thousand ducats for it. The Duke says that he has invited Doctor Bellario, a renowned scholar on the law from Padua, to deliver the judgement in this case. At this moment Salarino informs the Duke that a messenger from Doctor Bellario is standing outside with letters. Then Nerissa dressed as a lawyer’s clerk enters the court and delivers a letter to the Duke. Gratiano sees Shylock sharpening his knife and remarks that his knife is sharper than the executioner’s axe and that no one can make him show mercy to Antonio. He quotes the doctrine of Pythagorus that says that the soul of an animal can enter a human body. He says that the soul of a wolf that was hanged for killing lambs has entered the body of Shylock. Shylock remarks that whatever he says, nothing can change his mind.

The Duke then directs Nerissa to read Doctor Bellario’s letter in the open court. Doctor Bellario writes in the letter that he has fallen ill and is unable to attend the court, and that he is sending a young lawyer in his place to listen to the case and give his verdict. He informs the Duke that though the lawyer is young in age, he is mature in intellect. He further adds that he has given his opinion to the young lawyer with regard to the case and hopes that it will help him to give the correct verdict.

After the letter is read, Portia dressed as a lawyer enters the court. Antonio and Shylock are asked to appear before her. Portia tells Shylock that though he ha§ brought a strange case in the court, the case is in accordance with the laws of Venice. Then she tells Antonio that as per the suit filed against him, his life is in danger. Portia appeals to Shylock for mercy. Shylock asserts why he should show mercy to Antonio. Thereupon, Portia delivers a fine speech on mercy and says :

“The quality of mercy is not strained./It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven/Upon the place beneath; it is twice blessed./It blesseth him that gives and him that takes”.

However, Portia asks Shylock to accept the offer of money from Bassanio. But Shylock tells Portia that he has taken an oath to charge the penalty as mentioned in the bond. Portia says that he is entitled to cut a pound of flesh from Antonio’s breast according to the law and Shylock feels happy and triumphant. He shouts, “A Daniel has come to judgement!” Antonio is unhappy over the delay of the verdict and pleads to the court to give its verdict at once.

Portia, then, directs Antonio to lay bare his chest and get ready for a pound of flesh to be cut from his chest. At the same time, she asks Shylock if he has got a balance to measure the flesh. She also directs Shylock to get some surgeon lest Antonio should bleed to death. Antonio asks Bassanio to tell his wife how he has sacrificed his life for the sake of his friend. Bassanio says that though he loves his wife more dearly than his life, he will lose his life and his wife and the whole world to save the life of his friend. Portia does not like the remarks made by Bassanio.

Gratiano wishes his wife to be dead so that she could go to heaven and appeal to .the gods to change the adamant attitude of Shylock. Nerissa, too, dislikes Gratiano’s remarks. Shylock says to himself that Christian husbands have no feelings for their wives. He would like a murderer like Barrabas to marry his daughter instead of a Christian.

When Shylock is about to apply his knife to cut out the flesh from Antonio’s body, Portia asks him to wait for a moment. She tells him that when he cuts the flesh, not a single drop of blood should be shed because it is nowhere mentioned in the bond, otherwise his life will be at the mercy of the Duke. At this moment, Gratiano shouts in a fit of joy, “O upright Judge ! Mark Jew : O learned Judge !” Portia then adds that he must have nothing but justice, and so if he cuts the flesh more or less than a pound, all his property would be confiscated by the state. Shylock finds himself in a tight corner and says, “I take this offer, then pay the bond thrice. And let the Christian go.”
Bassanio says, “Here is the money.”

But Portia asks Bassanio to stop and remarks that the Jew must have full justice. He will have nothing but a pound of flesh. She further says that according to the laws of Venice if any alien tries to take the life of a Venetian, his life will be at the mercy of the Duke. Moreover, half of his property will be given to the Venetian whose life the alien wanted to take. Gratiano remarks that after the government confiscates Shylock’s property, he will be left with nothing to purchase a rope for hanging himself and therefore he has to be hanged at the expense of the government.

The Duke pardons the life sentence upon Shylock. Shylock accepts the compromise proposed by Antonio. Shylock will live and have the use of half of his property, which he will leave to Lorenzo and Jessica in his will. Half of his property will be held in trust by Antonio for the benefit of Lorenzo and Jessica. Shylock will become a Christian.

Portia, then, asks Nerissa to prepare a title deed of gift in favour of Jessica and Lorenzo and get it signed by Shylock. Shylock is completely defeated and shattered. He walks out of the court saying that he is not well. He tells the court to send the deed after him and he will sign it.

When the court is dispersed, the Duke asks Antonio to reward the young lawyer for his brilliant defence and valuable service. Bassanio at once offers three thousand ducats to Portia but she refuses to accept the money. She says that she has not come to the court to make money. She feels satisfied and happy that she has been able to save the life of Antonio. Bassanio still presses Portia to accept it as a token of remembrance. Portia accepts the pair of gloves from Antonio and asks for Bassanio’s ring. Bassanio does not want to part with this ring. So he tells Portia that he will buy her the costliest ring but Portia insists on having the ring that he wears in his finger. Bassanio tells her that this ring has been presented to him by his wife with a solemn pledge that he will never part with it. Portia replies that there are people in the world who make generous promises but rarely honour them. Portia, then, leaves the court. Antonio advises Bassanio to send the ring after Portia. Bassanio agrees and asks Gratiano to run and overtake her and present her this ring and request her to have dinner with them.

Merchant of Venice Act 4 Scene 1 Critical Commentary

The trial scene is known as denouement of the play because it is in this scene that all the complicated events that seem to threaten the happiness of Bassanio, Portia and Antonio are unravelled. It depicts the victory of good and defeat of malice. Poetic justice in the strict sense is dispensed in the play by Shakespeare. No one suffers in the play but Shylock and even he receives a generous measure of mercy. Many readers may find it difficult to accept the treatment meted out to Shylock.

Significance of the Scene

  1. It is the climax of the play.
  2. It is important to see how Portia turns the tables on Shylock.
  3. It interests us mainly for Portia’s wit and ingenuity.
  4. Some critics have found fault with the procedure adopted at the trial.

Merchant of Venice Act 4 Scene 1 Glossary

Lines 1-25
answer : defend
stony : cruel
void : bereft of
obdurate : obstinate
malice : revengeful spirit

Lines 26-50
moiety : part
pluck : draw
commiseration : pity
carrion : dead
baned : poisoned
gaping : with open mouth

Lines 51-75
affection : inclination
loathes : hates
lodged : deep-rooted
suit : legal case
question : argue
bate : slacken, reduce
flood : the ocean

Lines 76-110
draw : accept
abject : degrading
palates : appetite
viands : rich food
determine : decide

Lines 110-150
tainted wether : sick sheep
pierce : penetrate
infuse : enter
currish : vile, wicked
dam : mother
commend : recommend
heart : willingness

Lines 151-180
visitation : visit
importunity : request
commendation : praise
difference : dispute
forth : forward

Lines 181-220
impugn : attack
confess : admit
strain’d : forced
becomes : suites
sceptre : rod of authority
seasons : tempers
mitigate : soften
‘deeds upon my : take responsibility of my
head’ : deeds
discharge : pay

Lines 221-300
perjury : breach of oath
bid : allow
tenor : terms
exposition : interpretation
pillar : supporter
intent : meaning
balance : scales
charge : expense
arm’d : prepared
process : method
fair : well

Lines 301-400
unquiet : disturbed
trifle : worthless
jot : smallest part
urgest : demand
substance : quantity
scruple : very small unit of weight
question : discussion
hold : claim
contrive : conspire
predicament : situation
rehearsed : described
spirits : nature
prop : support
record : write legally

Lines 401-440
christening : baptism
gratify : reward
bound : obliged
account : consider
tribute : token

Lines 440-473
trifle : small thing
mind : inclination
dearest : costliest
proclamation : announcement
answer’d : refused
vow : take oath
commandment : order

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 5 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 5 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 5 Summary, Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 5 Summary

Setting : Belmont
Characters : Launcelot, Jessica, Lorenzo

Launcelot indulges in some jesting at the expense of Jessica. He says that there is no hope of salvation for her because her father is a Jew. Jessica retorts that she will be saved by her husband’s virtues and by her conversion to Christianity. At this the jester finds fault with Lorenzo in marrying her. In fact, he has done a wrong to the commonwealth of the Christians because by doing so, he has added to the number of pork eaters.

Thus he is responsible for the increase in the prices of pork in the market. Lorenzo arrives on the scene and tells them that if they talk to each other in such an intimate manner, he is bound to suspect that there is something wrong between them. Lorenzo then asks Launcelot to get their dinner ready. When Launcelot uses some words wrongly, Lorenzo calls him stupid. Launcelot, then, leaves to arrange dinner for them. Lorenzo asks Jessica about her opinion about Portia.

Jessica praises Portia for her virtues and says that she is a blessing in Bassanio’s life. Lorenzo, too, praises Bassanio for his goodness and remarks that he is a good husband. Both go to the dining table to continue this discussion about Portia and Bassanio.

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 5 Critical Commentary

Lorenzo and Jessica are staying at Portia’s house in Belmont. The scene opens on a humorous note. Launcelot and Jessica converse with each other in a humorous way. Launcelot tells Jessica that she would be damned due to the sins of her father, Shylock. But Jessica retorts that in that case she would be saved by the virtues of Lorenzo. This humorous conversation is meant to amuse the ‘groundlings.’ Jessica’s words of praise for Portia throw more light on the character of Portia.

This scene does not further the action of the play. But it definitely heightens the characters of Portia and Bassanio in the eyes of the readers.

Significance of the Scene

  1. This scene is essential to indicate the passage of time to enable Portia to reach Venice.
  2. It gives us Jessica’s estimate of Portia.

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 5 Glossary

Lines 1-30
agitation : thought
rasher : piece of bacon
corners : privacy
flatly : plainly
wit-snapper : a witty person

Lines 31-50
govern : dominate
better place : better social status
tricksy : tricky
meet : proper

Lines 51-67
pawn’d : pledged
anon : soon
stomach : inclination

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 4 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 4 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 4 Summary, Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 4 Summary

Setting : Belmont
Characters : Lorenzo, Portia, Nerissa

Lorenzo praises Portia for valuing true friendship by sending her husband to Venice for Antonio’s help without any delay. He says that she will feel pleased with her action since Antonio is really a noble man and a great friend.

Portia says that she knows that the two friends who are deeply attached to each other must be similar in appearance. She does not consider any sacrifice too great for ensuring the safety of a friend like Antonio. She tells Lorenzo that she has told her servants to regard him and Jessica as their masters in her absence. Lorenzo and Jessica agree to look after her house.

Portia asks Balthazar to run to Padua and deliver her letter to Doctor Bellario. She instructs him to bring back with him the documents or clothes that he might give him. When Balthazar leaves, Portia tells Nerissa that they are going to meet their husbands very soon. Nerissa fails to understand what Portia means. Portia explains to Nerissa that they are going to put on male dresses.

She will put on her knife and belt in order to give a look of a smart man. Portia, then, tells Nerissa that she will disclose the whole plan later. She asks her to accompany her to the park gate from where the mail-coach will pick them up to cover a journey of twenty miles.

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 4 Critical Commentary

In this scene, we discover new shades in the personality of Portia. So far we have known that she is a woman having all the graceful womanly virtues. But here we find that she is a woman of quick decision and determined action.

The moment she finds that the life of her husband’s friend is in danger, she hastens to Venice with a daring and intelligent plan to save him. This scene has a great significance because it will lead us to the crucial trial scene. Moreover, the presence of all the important characters in Venice will make the union of the main plot and the subplot complete. In this way, Shakespeare achieves complete dramatic unity.

Significance of the Scene

  1. This scene reveals Portia’s plan to appear as a judge to defend Antonio.
  2. It reveals Portia’s shrewdness as well as generosity.
  3. Portia’s courage astonishes Lorenzo

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 4 Glossary

Lines 1-30
conceit : idea
amity : friendship
lineaments : features
semblance : likeness
husbandry : control

Lines 31-60 :
imposition : task
fair : honoured
my people : my servants
fair : happy
imagined : great
traject : ferry

Lines 61-87
habit : dress
accomplished : furnished
accoutred : equipped
grace : dignity
mincing : short, quick
could not do withal : could not help it

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 3 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 3 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 3 Summary, Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 3 Summary

Setting : Venice
Characters : Shylock, Antonio, Salarino

In this scene, Shylock warns the jailor to keep an eye on Antonio lest he should escape. Shylock blames the jailor for showing leniency to Antonio and allowing him to come out of the prison. Antonio tries to make Shylock see reason but Shylock refuses to listen to him.

He asserts that he will have penalty as mentioned in the bond. Salarino remarks that the Duke will never grant Shylock the permission to cut a pound of flesh from Antonio’s breast. The cruel nature of the bond will not allow the Duke to grant this justice to Shylock. But Antonio tells Salarino that the Duke will have to grant this justice to Shylock in order to uphold the dignity of the laws of Venice.

Antonio tells Salarino that his worries have weakened his body so much that Shylock will not be able to get one pound of flesh from his body. Antonio expresses his wish to meet Bassanio at the time of his death.

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 3 Critical Commentary

The scene shifts back to Venice where Antonio is shown to be in trouble. He has forfeited his bond and is in the clutches of Shylock. Shylock is adamant to cut a pound of flesh from Antonio’s heart. He wants to take revenge upon Antonio. Shylock is portrayed as a cruel, clever and revengeful Jew. Antonio displays a lot of patience and argues with Shylock to be reasonable and merciful. But Shylock is adamant.

Even the Duke is in a tight corner. The cruel nature of the bond may prevent the Duke from allowing Shylock to cut a pound of flesh. But on the other hand, he is bound by the laws , of Venice. So Shakespeare keeps up sufficient suspense.

Significance of the Scene

  1. This scene is another step in the direction of the Trial Scene.
  2. Antonio is in Shylock’s grip.
  3. Shylocks’s obdurate stance reveals his cruel nature.
  4. Antonio extremely frustrated.

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 3 Glossary

Lines 1-25
look to him : keep a watch on him
fangs : teeth
fond : foolish
impenetrable : which cannot be satisfied
bootless : useless
forfeitures : penalties

Lines 26-39
commodity : privileges
impeach : deny
bated me : reduced my body (weakened me)
I care not : I do not bother

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 2 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 2 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 2 Summary, Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 2 Summary

Setting : Belmont
Characters : Portia, Bassanio, Nerissa, Gratiano

This scene, set in Belmont, is quite significant. Portia asks Bassanio to postpone choosing the casket for some time as she would lose him if he were to choose wrong. She says she is half tempted to reveal the secret but she cannot prove false to her oath. Bassanio wants to make the choice because of the torture of suspense. So Portia leads him to the caskets. She arranges for some music. She looks upon Bassanio as her Hercules who will rescue her. She will weep if he fails. If he chooses the right casket, music will form appropriate setting.

Bassanio reads the inscription on the gold casket, after examining all the three caskets. He is not impressed by the inscription. He says to himself that the world has always been deceived by the outward glitter of things. If a thing looks bright, its brightness hides its weakness. So he will not be swayed by the outward glitter of the golden casket and the silver casket. He rejects the golden casket and the silver casket and chooses the lead casket because lead is the most modest looking metal. He, then, opens the lead casket and finds the portrait of Portia in it.

Portia is extremely happy at the right choice made by Bassanio. Bassanio, too, is completely charmed by the portrait of Portia that he found in the casket. Bassanio reads the scroll on which it is written that he should feel contented with Portia and not think of any other woman. The scroll also directs Bassanio to give Portia a kiss and then claim her as his wife.

Portia, then, declares that from now onward Bassanio has become the master of the house and she, too, has become his. property.

She surrenders her body and soul to Bassanio. She will learn from Bassanio and seek his guidance in every respect.

Portia, then, offers Bassanio a ring as a wedding gift. She asks him never to lose it or part with it so long as he is alive. The day she finds the ring missing from his finger, she will presume that he has lost all his love for her. Nerissa and Gratiano congratulate Portia and Bassanio at their success and consequent marriage. Gratiano reveals that while Bassanio had been busy in choosing the right casket, he had been courting Nerissa and that Nerissa had agreed to marry him provided Bassanio chose the right casket and made Portia his wife. Portia asks Nerissa about all this. She tells Portia that it is all true.

At this happy occasion, Salarino arrives and gives a letter to Bassanio. While Bassanio is reading the letter, Portia notices that he is growing paler and therefore she presumes that the letter must be containing some bad news. Portia asks Bassanio that she being half of himself has the right to know the contents of the letter. Bassanio tells her that he had taken a loan from a Jew named Shylock on the surety of his best friend named Antonio. Now his friend has lost all his fortunes and is unable to return the loan to the jew. Therefore, he will have to pay the penalty.

Portia tells Bassanio to take as much money as he wants and go to Venice to save the life of his friend. Salarino tells Bassanio that Antonio has lost all his merchant ships on the sea and is ruined. Shylock has approached the Duke for justice. He demands a pound of flesh from Antonio’s breast as mentioned in the bond. Jessica confirms that Shylock is doing all this to take revenge upon Antonio. Portia, therefore, asks Bassanio to leave for Venice at once. She remarks that during the absence of Bassanio, she and Nerissa will live like maids or widows. Bassanio, then, reads the letter to Portia. Portia asks him to go to Venice to help his friend. Bassanio tells her that he will immediately leave for Venice.

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 2 Critical Commentary

The scene makes us tense and curious. The plot here reaches the stage of complication. Herein the
three stories—the bond story, the casket story and Lorenzo-Jessica affair—become one, and Portia takes upon herself to resolve the complication.

Bassanio makes a successful attempt to choose the right casket. Here Shakespeare presents a dramatic irony. By this time the readers know which is the right casket but Bassanio does not know about it. He makes the choice in the right manner. He justifies the expectations of Portia’s late father. He is not fascinated by the external glitter of the gold casket and the silver casket. Like a true lover he is ready ‘to give and hazard all that he hath’. So he chooses the lead casket and finds the portrait of Portia in it. Bassanio and Portia are extremely happy.

But soon the news of Antonio’s losses mars the happy occasion. Salarino arrives and gives a letter to Bassanio. It is written in the letter that Antonio has lost all his merchant ships on the sea and has forfeited the bond. Shylock has approached the Duke and demanded justice. He demands a pound of flesh from Antonio’s breast as mentioned in the bond. Jessica, Shylock’s daughter, confirms that his demand is the outcome of his revengeful motive. We come to know the callous, cruel and revengeful nature of Shylock. Shylock considers it the best opportunity to take revenge upon Antonio. Antonio had been insulting and abusing Shylock. Now he has fallen in Shylock’s trap and Shylock will not allow him to slip away. The main interest of the play will now be on the clever and cunning moves of Shylock.

Significance of the Scene

  1. This is the scene where three stories mingle : the bond story, the casket story and the Lorenzo-Jessica episode.
  2. Bassanio chooses the right casket. Gratiano and Nerissa want to marry. Lorenzo and Jessica arrive. The news of Antonio’s bad luck comes and overshadows the happy events.
  3. The scene is significant for character interest. It sheds light on the characters of both Bassanio and Portia.

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 2 Glossary

Lines 1-25
tarry : wait
detain : stop
Beshrew : curse
o’erlook’d : cast a spell
naughty : bad
peize : retard
election : choice
rack : in a state of torture

Lines 26-50
amity : friendly agreement
deliverance : liberation
proper : complete
flourish : notes of trumpets

Lines 51-80
presence : respect
Alcides : Hercules, a great Greek warrior
visages : faces
fancy : love
gazing : glances
gracious : graceful

Lines 81-110
white as milk : coward
excrement : appearance
crisped : curly
guiled : treacherous
drudge : slave

Lines 111-140
allay : decrease
measure : moderation
counterfeit : likeness
sunder : separate
gnats : small insects
shadow : ailment
fair : fortunate

Lines 141-175
giddy : drowsy
account : estimate
livings : wealth
converted : transferred
mansion : big building
presage : foretell

Lines 176-210
oration : speech
solemnize : celebrate
intermission : waiting period
pertains : welcome
falls : turns out

Lines 211-240
infidel : the Jewess
interest : right
entreat : request
nay : no
ope : open

Lines 241-280
fleece : golden fleece
shrewd : sharp
constitution : condition
impart : expressed
merchant-marring : which destroy merchants

Lines 281-337
plies : presses
impeach : oppose in law
magnificoes : noble men
deface : destroy
persuade : urge
despatch : expedite
leave : permission
interposer : separated
twain : two

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 1 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 1 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 1 Summary, Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 1 Summary

Setting : Venice
Characters : Salarino, Salanio, Shylock, Tubal

Salarino and Salanio stand discussing the latest news on the Rialto. There is a rumour about the loss of one of Antonio’s ships in the English Channel and it has not yet been contradicted. When Shylock appears, Salanio asks him if there is any hews. Shylock remarks peevishly that there is no news except that of his daughter’s flight.

Then Shylock curses his daughter for eloping with a Christian and for robbing him. Salarino’s remark that his daughter being a grown-up woman has left her father provokes Shylock. He further enrages him by saying that Antonio has lost a ship. He (Shylock) swears to exact the full penalty of his bond if Antonio fails to pay back.

When Salarino asks him what he would gain with a pound of human flesh, Shylock replies that it will satisfy his sense of revenge, even if he is to gain nothing materially. At this, Salarino and and Salanio leave Shylock. When Shylock is alone, his friend Tubal, a Jew, appears on the scene. Shylock asks Tubal about his daughter.

Tubal tells him that he could not meet her but he did get some information about her at Genoa. Shylock again curses his daughter and wishes her to be dead and all the gold coins lying with her in the coffin. Shylock curses his ill-luck. Tubal informs him that his daughter squandered away eighty ducats in one night. Shylock is shocked to know from Tubal that Jessica bought a monkey with a diamond ring. He feels miserable and shaken. He is full of despair and sorrow.

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 1 Critical Commentary

The scene indicates that Antonio will suffer heavy losses in the days to come. It is becoming certain that Antonio will not be able to pay back the money to Shylock and will have to pay the penalty. On the other hand, Shylock is very angry at the loss of his money and the elopement of his daughter. He has become as merciless as a tigress robbed of her cub.

The reason for his hatred for Antonio is also due to the fact that he had several times intervened to lend money to the helpless debtors and saved them from the clutches of the Jew. Now Antonio has fallen in his trap and he will not allow him to slip away. Shylock reflects that if Antonio is out of his way, he will make huge profits. He is jealous of Antonio’s goodness and kindness. Shylock is expected to be merciless with Antonio and he will take revenge upon Antonio.

Significance of the Scene

  1. This scene moves the action to the point of crisis.
  2. Shylock openly talks of revenge.
  3. The use of prose indicates the holding up of romance for some time.

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 1 Glossary

Lines 1-25
Rialto : stock exchange
lading : cargo
knapped : nibbled
ship of prolixity : tedious speeches
title : adjective
betimes : in good times
cross : frustrate
wings : dress

Lines 26-40
complexion : nature
jet and ivory : black and white
rhenish : white wine
match : transaction

Lines 41-70
mart : market
usurer : one who gives loan at a very high rate of interest.
thwarted : obstructed /blocked
dimensions : limbs
humility : forbearance
better : improve upon

Lines 71-90
tribe : the Jewish race
would : wish
hearsed : put in coffin
lights : falls
shedding : shedding tears

Lines 91-120
argosy : merchant ship
cast away : wrecked
divers : travellers
plague : persecute
out upon her : shame upon her
turquoise : precious blue stone
fee : engage
synagogue : a Jewish temple

Merchant of Venice Act 2 Scene 9 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 2 Scene 9 Summary

Merchant of Venice Act 2 Scene 9 Summary, Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers

Merchant of Venice Act 2 Scene 9 Summary

Setting : Belmont
Characters : Portia, the Prince of Arragon

This scene is an extension of the casket story. Here we find the Prince of Arragon trying his luck. Portia tells him that if he succeeds in choosing the casket with her picture, she will marry him at once. If he chooses the wrong casket he will have to leave at once without uttering a word. The Prince says that he remembers the three conditions well : that he is not to disclose what choice he has made, that he is not to marry if he chooses the wrong casket, and that he is to leave Belmont at once. Portia tells him that every suitor of hers is obliged to observe these three conditions if he is to try his luck.

The Prince of Arragon rejects the lead casket as he does not want to risk his all for the worthless metal. He, then, reads the inscription on the gold casket.

He thinks that what many men desire to possess may not be desired by him because he does not want to rank himself with the common people. He, then, turns to the silver casket, and reads the inscription which says, “Who chooseth me shall get as much as he deserves”. The inscription appeals to him because he thinks that he deserves the hand of Portia in marriage.

He, then, moralises over the corruption in the world. He says that the most undeserving people occupy high positions whereas the most deserving people act as their subordinates. He, then, selects the silver casket. When he opens it, he finds in it the portrait of a blinking idiot presenting a scroll in which it is written that those who do not think carefully before taking any step in any matter are fooled in life. In the same way, the Prince of Arragon has been fooled.

He, then, thinks that it was foolish on his part to have come to Belmont and try his luck by the caskets. Then he made a fool of himself by choosing a wrong casket. So he, at once, leaves the place. Portia remarks that he has been burnt in the flames like a moth and that she is glad that he has chosen the wrong casket. Nerissa remarks that death and marriage depend on destiny.

At that moment a servant arrives to inform that a messenger has come with greetings and presents. Portia tells Nerissa that she is eager to meet the suitor because he appears to possess decent manners. Nerissa wishes that this suitor may turn out to be Lord Bassanio.

Merchant of Venice Act 2 Scene 9 Critical Commentary

We are again taken to Portia’s house in Belmont. The Prince of Arragon makes his choice of the casket. Like the Prince of Morocco, he, too, does not attach any importance to the leaden casket. He, then, examines the golden casket and rejects it too. He selects the silver casket and therein he finds the portrait of .a blinking idiot. So he, too, fails to choose the right casket. So Morocco and Arragon leave the place. It appears that Shakespeare clears the pitch for Bassanio who will soon try his luck.

Significance of the Scene

  1. This scene is an extension of the casket story.
  2. The Prince of Arragon fails because of his superiority complex.
  3. While Morocco has suffered from vanity, Arragon suffers from self-conceit.

Merchant of Venice Act 2 Scene 9 Glossary

Lines 1-25
election : choice
enjoin’d : bound
injunctions : conditions
address’d : agreed
multitude : majority
fond : foolish

Lines 26-50
martlet : a bird
title : message
chaff : rubbish

Lines 51-75
pause : halt
blinking : winking
schedule : scroll
offices : duties
amiss : wrong
iws : certainly
sped : over

Lines 76-100
wroth : anger
singed : burned
heresy : rumour
alighted : come
signify : announce
regreets : greetings
courteous breath : words of courtesy
likely : promising
costly : rich
high-day : holiday
post : messenger